Federal law has no provision for double time pay (see statement), but California law does. State labor laws add to Federal labor laws so that they can provide additional protections for workers.
California Workers Get Double Time Pay In Two Cases
1. Hours exceeding 12 in a day
When the hours worked in one day exceed 12, employees are paid double time for all time worked thereafter during that workday.
2. Seventh consecutive day after 8 hours
Employees who work seven consecutive days are entitled to double time pay after the first 8 hours on that seventh workday.
From the California DIR:
For all hours worked in excess of 12 hours in any workday and for all hours worked in excess of eight on the seventh consecutive day of work in a workweek.
Why employees might not get double time
If the 7th day falls outside of the workweek, double time would not apply. A workweek starts over after 7 days so if an employee works 5 days in one workweek and 2 in another, the 7th consecutive day rule would not apply. The same is true of workdays. Read more about it here.
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